Which Two Sentences Best Describe The Effects Of The Agreements At The Congress Of Vienna

21. december 2020 Slået fra Af Patrick

Two different periods are widely discernible in the history of the concert of Europe. In the first, which lasted until the early 1860s, the system worked quite well. With regard to the Greek question or the events in Belgium or Egypt, the principles on which the concert was based made it possible to find negotiated solutions and, where there was a conflict, it was prevented from spreading to the whole continent. Even the violent and deadly war in Crimea, which pitted Britain, France and the Ottoman Empire against Russian ambitions over the Bosphorus, remained localized. The 1856 Paris Congress, which ended the war, can be seen as the highlight of the concert. It was also the time when Britain, whose continental policy aimed at balance, sometimes engaged against France and sometimes against Russia, thus acting as the arbiter of Europe. The second period is more complex. The logic of the concert was first met with the inexorably acclaimed rise of nationalism, whose revolutionary manifestations had been retained by the powers to this point in the name of order and stability of the system. Prussia`s persuasive power in the 1860s – gradually victorious over Denmark, Austria and France – and the birth of the German Empire in 1871 were disruptive elements.

Britain, which was engaged in colonial conquests, allowed it, because it was not saddened to witness the collapse of the Second Empire and, in any case, did not give the military means to intervene on the continent against the Prussian army. In the 20th century, however, many historians came to admire the statesmen of Congress, whose work prevented another generalized European war for nearly 100 years (1815-1914). Among them is Henry Kissinger, who wrote his thesis at World Restored in 1954. Historian Mark Jarrett argues that the Vienna Congress and the Congress system marked “the true beginning of our modern times.” He says the Congressional system is a conscious management of conflicts and the first real attempt to create an international order based on consensus, not conflict. “Europe was ready to accept an unprecedented level of international cooperation in response to the French Revolution,” Jarrett said. [2] Historian Paul Schroeder argues that the old formulas of “balance of power” were indeed very destabilizing and predatory. He says that the Congress of Vienna avoided them and instead established rules that produced a stable and benign balance. [3] The Vienna Congress was the first in a series of international meetings known as Europe`s Concert, which was an attempt to forge a peaceful balance of forces in Europe. It served as a model for later organizations such as the League of Nations in 1919 and the United Nations in 1945. The immediate context was the defeat and surrender of Napoleonic France in May 1814, which ended 23 years of almost uninterrupted war.

Negotiations continued despite the outbreak of fighting caused by Napoleon`s dramatic return to exile and the resumption of power in France during the hundred days from March to July 1815. The “last act” of Congress was signed nine days before its final defeat at Waterloo on June 18, 1815. A large United Kingdom of the Netherlands was created for the Prince of Orania, including the former provinces of the United Kingdom and the southern regions of the Netherlands, formerly dominated by Austria.